My research demonstrates that while the community was able to obtain limited economic benefits from the recent forestry negotiations such as the Forest and Range Opportunities Agreement, the overall intended socio-economic objectives of the community were never fully realized due to a combination of several factors. By focusing on the unique needs and circumstances of the Tl'azt'en Nation, this thesis highlights the need for future community-based resource management and decision-making.
Opinion: First Nations and forestry: A growing collaboration
Forest policy -- British Columbia. Tl'azt'en Indians -- Land tenure. Forest management -- British Columbia. Tl'azt'en Indians -- Government relations. Tl'azt'en Indians -- Economic conditions. The World Health Organization WHO has drafted several guidelines and passed resolutions for the integration of traditional health care systems and remedies into national health policies and regulations [ 8 , — ].
Managing the Forest for Sustainable Development: A Study of Indian States
The specific guidelines on conservation of medicinal plants are provided in WHO et al. Various recommendations have been made on the use and conservation of medicinal plants, such as those associated with international conferences at Chiang Mai, Thailand, in , and Bangalore, India, in and [ 18 , ]. They included the need for co-ordinated conservation action, based on both in situ and ex situ strategies; inclusion of community and gender perspectives in the development of policies and programmes; the need for more information on medicinal plants trade; establishment of systems for inventorying and monitoring medicinal plants status; development of sustainable harvesting practices; encouragement of micro-enterprise development by indigenous and rural communities; and protection of traditional resources and intellectual property rights [ 18 ].
The recent International Healers' Conference on Promotion of Traditional Medicine for Sustainable Healthcare [ ] called for the promotion of self-regulation of all traditional health professions, capacity building in local communities to develop biocultural protocols, integration of traditional medicine into national healthcare systems, and establishment of a Permanent Forum on Traditional Health Practices at the United Nations.
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The regulation of existing markets by setting environmental standards for international trade is a traditional instrument advocated by international environmental policy [ ]. Biodiversity conservation oriented trade policy measures are components of international agreements e.
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Likewise, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT also regulates biodiversity trade and imposes certain restrictions on international trade of plant resources, including several species of medicinal plants. Comprehensive national policy, laws and regulations on traditional medicine do not exist in Canada [ 10 ]. Nevertheless, Aboriginal and treaty rights are protected by the constitution of Canada, and this is reflected in forest policy and forest management practices.
Canada's National Forest Sector Strategy , reviewed and revised in , , and included provisions for ensuring rights and participation of Aboriginal people and incorporating traditional knowledge, cultural values and practices in managing forest lands [ 22 , , ]. Involvement of Aboriginal people in developing non-timber forest products and the role they play in sustainable forest management have been recognized [ 22 ].
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The economic development of NTFPs for diversification of the forest industry is one of the important aspects of sustainable management of Canada's forest [ 13 ]. Canada is also an active participant of multilateral and bilateral international treaties and conventions including Forest Principles and CBD adopted in in Rio, and CITES [ 22 ]; ensuring conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants, as well as protection of indigenous knowledge.
Canada has recently - although belatedly - ratified the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples that reaffirms the country's commitment to promoting and protecting the rights of Indigenous peoples and their resources [ ]. Sustainable Forests: A Canadian Commitment published in [ ] was signed by governments, industry, non-governmental organizations, Aboriginal people, and communities.
The Canadian government has implemented the Species at Risk Act in to protect endangered and threatened species [ ]. Equivalent legislations also exist at the provincial level [ ]. The Canadian policy on "Natural Health Products Regulations" includes herbal medicines among other things and was implemented in by the Natural Health Products Directorate [ , ].
The program has identified indigenous medicinal plants and Aboriginal contributions and approaches to alternative health care as priority research areas [ ]. Forest certification provides important benefits to forest communities and certified forests are increasing in proportion since the beginning of the 's. Canada is leading the world in terms of total area of certified forest and proportion of managed forests that have been certified [ ].
Certification standards mandate forest companies to protect biodiversity and Aboriginal culture. Specific criteria protect the rights of Aboriginal people, ensure preservation of Aboriginal resources, traditional knowledge and land, and compensation of Indigenous people for the use of their traditional knowledge in forest management [ ]. These provisions provided by forest certification standards could benefit Aboriginal people by providing opportunities for protecting not only timber, but also non-timber forest values, including medicinal plants [ ].
Interestingly, certification has proven equally, or even more effective than legislation to ensure protection of species, habitats and culture, as pressure from the market is often stronger than from governments. Ethnobotanical research in the Canadian boreal forest has so far focused on plant use by Aboriginal people from the eastern boreal zone. The Mi'kmaq and Malecite nations of the Maritimes are among the most studied groups [e.
In Quebec, Cree and Innu cultures have been given more attention [e. The northwestern zone of the boreal forest has received less attention [but see [ 13 , 17 , 54 , 92 — 99 ]. After the s, there has been a shift from ethnobotanical studies to phytochemical, antimicrobial and pharmacological studies. Notwithstanding the importance of phytochemical, antimicrobial and pharmacological studies, ethnobotanical efforts should continue, especially in areas and within nations that have received less attention so far, or for which publicly available material is scarce.
For example, studies should be conducted in the northwestern Canadian boreal forest, notably with the Metis and with peoples of the Athapaskan language family, as well as with the Naskapi from northeastern Quebec. To diversify the scope of ethnobotanical studies, new methods should be adopted, for field work as well as for data analysis [e. Studies are needed to determine if, for the same active principle and at the same dosage, the efficiency is different for traditional and western remedies.
Possible interactions between medicinal plants and western medicine or between different species of medicinal plants also need to be investigated [ — ]. Studies are also needed in pharmacognosy, i. The utilization of animal products alone or in combination with plants to treat ailments has been given far less attention than medicinal plants, despite major potential [ ]. From a governance point of view, gender-based or intergenerational knowledge differences related to medicinal plant use should be better documented.
Studies are also needed to determine how traditional medicine could be given a larger place in modern health care systems [ — ]. Policy issues about traditional medicinal practices have not yet been properly addressed in Canada [ 10 ]. Canada is also lagging behind in terms of regulations about conservation and management of medicinal plants. As suggested by Westfall and Glickman [ ], Canada requires an enforceable policy that protects wild medicinal plants, effective monitoring system for commercial harvesting, and policy incentives for the cultivation of medicinal plants in order to reduce harvesting pressure of wild plants.
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However, harvesting medicinal plants from cultivated fields instead of natural forests might affect spiritual and ceremonial aspects, possibly with reduced medicinal effects [ ]. Medicinal plants represent a significant contribution to human health and one of the most significant ways in which humans directly reap the benefits provided by biodiversity [ 7 , 17 ]. Use of medicinal plants by Aboriginal people from the Canadian boreal forest has a long history [ 11 ]. Here we reported on medicinal plant species used in the traditional health care systems of Aboriginal people from the Canadian boreal forest.
This is the most comprehensive review to date and it shows striking similarities between medicinal plant uses in different nations. Thus, by triangulation, it is probably still possible to document most of the knowledge, but research should continue, especially in areas or within nations that have received less attention. The Algonquian and Athapaskan language families include other peoples not listed here. The names are those that are currently in use and different names were sometimes provided in the older literature.
Ojibwa and Chippewa are names given to them by other tribes or by non-aboriginal people [see [ 19 ]]. The Algonquin also call themselves Anishinabe or Anicinape [ 33 ]. Iwu MM: Handbook of African medicinal plants. Leaman DJ: Sustainable wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants.
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Wyatt S: First Nations, forest lands, and "aboriginal forestry" in Canada: From exclusion to comanagement and beyond. Can J Forest Res. Seeing beyond the trees: the social dimensions of Aboriginal forest management. Edited by: Natcher DC. Berkes F, Chapin FS: Conservation, community and livelihoods: Sustaining, renewing, and adapting cultural connections to the land.
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